In dogs vaccinated and boostered as puppies and then vaccinated again approximately 1 year later revaccination with Vanguard DAP has been demonstrated (under field conditions) to result in serum antibody titers that persist for 1248 months against CD virus (serum neutralization [SN] titer 1:32) CAV-1 (SN 1:16) CAV-2 (SN 1:16) and CPI virus (SN 1:16). Protection against infectious agents involves a complex interplay between humoral immunity cellular immunity or a combination of both. The purpose of vaccination is to induce effector cells in both these arms of the immune system. During the process long-term immunity in the form of memory and B lymphocytes is produced. Memory cells and antibodies interact to provide protection to an animal challenged with the same pathogen at a later date. Depending on the vaccine and the disease antibodies may be produced that provide complete protection from disease and prevent or reduce shedding. In other cases antibodies may play a minor or ineffective role and protection from disease relies on systemic local cellular immunity and/or local antibody production. The role of sustained serological titers in the prevention of disease has not been confirmed. In companion animals immunological response to infection or vaccination has generally been evaluated by measuring the level of antibodies in serum and correlating these with protection or susceptibility. For the diseases caused by canine distemper virus canine parvovirus 3 4 canine adenovirus and leptospirosis 3 evaluation of antibody titers may be a valuable diagnostic indicator to determine when revaccination may be needed. For other diseases a serological response has not been identified that correlates with protection. Practical knowledge of the disease the vaccine and the patient along with serologic test results when appropriate is paramount in making the best recommendation for a vaccination protocol for a specific animal. The duration and character of the immune response to the viral antigens of Vanguard and/or Vanguard Plus were determined in a multi-center serology study involving 46 small animal veterinary clinics located in the United States (44) and Canada (2). Three hundred twenty-two male and female (intact and neutered) dogs of various ages breeds weights lifestyles and time since last vaccination were enrolled in the study. Dogs were required to be healthy greater than 2 years old with no history of disease due to CDV CPV CAV-1 CAV-2 or CPI and must not have been vaccinated for 1248 months or longer. Additionally dogs must have received at least a priming vaccination series approximately 27 weeks apart as a puppy and a booster vaccination approximately 816 months later. All previously administered vaccines were Vanguard products. A blood sample was collected from each dog and serum submitted to Cornell Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for determination of CDV (SN) CPV (HAI) titers CAV-1 (SN) CAV-2 (SN) and CPI (SN). The samples were sent to a single diagnostic laboratory thus ensuring a standardized test and methodology. As shown in the table below elevated geometric mean titers were sustained for 12 to 48 months after the last booster. Since the study was conducted under field conditions with client-owned animals it is possible that natural exposure to infectious agents could have occurred without clinical signs of infection. In such cases the titers measured in the study could be the result of exposure to the disease in addition to vaccinations during the course of the study.
table 1. Geometric mean titer/number of dogs5
|Time Since Last Vaccination (Months)|
1. General Directions: Vaccination of healthy dogs is recommended. Aseptically rehydrate the freeze-dried vaccine with the sterile diluent provided shake well and administer 1 mL subcutaneously or intramuscularly. 2. Primary Vaccination: Healthy dogs should receive 2 doses administered 3-4 weeks apart. If dogs are vaccinated before the age of 4 months they should be revaccinated upon reaching 4 months of age. (Maternal antibodies may interfere with development of an adequate immune response in puppies less than 4 months old.) 3. Revaccination: Annual revaccination with a single dose is recommended although as recommended by the American Veterinary Medical Association and its Council on Biologic and Therapeutic Agents the attending veterinarian should determine the frequency of revaccination based on the animals lifestyle and risk of exposure.6
1. Store at 2-7C. Prolonged exposure to higher temperatures and/or direct sunlight may adversely affect potency. Do not freeze. 2. Use entire contents when first opened. 3. Sterilized syringes and needles should be used to administer this vaccine. Do not sterilize with chemicals because traces of disinfectant may inactivate the vaccine. 4. Burn containers and all unused contents. 5. Contains gentamicin as preservative. 6. Vaccination of pregnant bitches should be avoided. 7. As with many vaccines anaphylaxis may occur after use. Initial antidote of epinephrine is recommended and should be followed with appropriate supportive therapy. 8. This product has been shown to be efficacious in healthy animals. A protective immune response may not be elicited if animals are incubating an infectious disease are malnourished or parasitized are stressed due to shipment or environmental conditions are otherwise immunocompromised or the vaccine is not administered in accordance with label directions.